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22. Mayas. 600 d.C. - 1546 d.C. (en construcción)

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This list covers lowland Maya armies of the Late Classical (600 to 900) and Post Classical periods from which nearly all evidence of
warfare derives. There was usually no single Maya state, only rival cities of which one occasionally became predominant. At the end of the
Early Classical period, soil erosion from overpopulation and the consequent deforestation crippled the Maya, forcing the complete
abandonment of many cities. When their civilisation revived, its centre of gravity had shifted from the hillier Peten area to the flat and near
riverless forests of the Yucatan peninsula. Until 987, the Maya only had each other to fight, and wars were fought mainly by Ahau "kings"
and their courtiers, at first to obtain sacrificial victims for the usual heart-rending denouement, then later for the even greater fun of
capturing, looting and generally grinding down neighbouring cities. They were then attacked and conquered by the Toltecs, who formed a
new ruling class in most cities. These degenerated and were in turn replaced after 1224 by even less popular Toltec-oid immigrants called
ltza, whom the Maya referred to as "tricksters and rascals", "lewd ones" and "those that cannot even speak our language properly". The
greatest liza ruler was Cocom, who seized power at Mayapan in 1283 in a coup greatly aided by Toltec-Chichimec mercenaries, who then
became the new tyrant's guard. He made Mayapan the effective capital of Yucatan, a position it retained until a successful revolt of native
Maya in 1461 swapped ltza rule for feudal anarchy. The Maya successfully fought off an initial Spanish invasion from 1528-1535, but fell to
another in 1542. After an unsuccessful rebellion in 1546, only pockets of their original culture survived. The typical Mayan warrior carried a
short thrusting spear, a club and a light rectangular shield that could be rolled up like a window blind. Those depicted in art without shields
are thought to have discarded them to bind prisoners. Leaders of Mayan descent added jaguar hide or quilted cotton armour and wooden or
hide helmets. The Toltec nobility also wore cotton armour, but were arrned with maquahuitl, atlatl and round shield. The Itza would
probably have been armed in the same Mexican style. Both Toltec and Itza armies included Jaguar and Eagle orders, but these are not
reported by the Spanish, so had probably disappeared. The atlatl dart-thrower is attested from the start of our period, but seems to have been
of foreign origin and appears to have been limited to bodyguards and mercenaries. Ah Camul "guardians" were a Mexican mercenary guard
employed by Toltec rulers. The professional Holkans or "braves" are assumed to have been armed in Maya style. The bow is thought to
have been introduced by Cocom's mercenaries. We postulate that it was reserved to such people until the anarchy following the fall of the
ltza, then spread rapidly. The Spanish encountered it all over the Yucatan, often supporting other troops from behind. The sling is mentioned
in Spanish accounts, but not depicted in art, so we assume that if it was used earlier it was only by peasants. "Road weasels" were scouts
mentioned both by the Spanish and previously. How early they were used and how they were armed is uncertain. We give them a motive to
avoid combat. Hornet nest bearers are one of the more colourful Ps P(X) variants, projecting an early multiple homing sub-missile warhead.
Although the Maya used unusually large sea-going canoes for long distance trading, these were never used for war, and the only depiction of
a naval battle shows Toltecs in canoes fighting Maya on rafts.

Fuente: DBM Army List Book 3.